Dr. Manuel Keith

Assistant Professor at the Chair of Endogeneous Geodynamics

Head of junior research group (FAU): Enrichment of critical metals in the Earth’s crust

Tel: +49 (0)9131 85 26064
Fax: +49 (0)9131 85 29295


Research Interests

Critical metals are rare in the Earth’s crust and positive anomalies of these elements only occur in geographically restricted areas. The wide economic application of these elements in electronics and renewable energies gives them a strategic importance. However, supplying these critical and energy critical elements for the green transition is a growing challenge. Hence, it is important to develop new concepts with respect to critical element sourcing, fractionation and precipitation to ultimately define the magmatic-hydrothermal prerequisites that allow an enrichment of these rare commodities in the Earth’s crust.

Many of these metals and metalloids are hosted in hydrothermal sulphides like pyrite either in solid solution due to lattice substitution or as inclusions on the micro- to nano-scale. Little is known about the incorporation mechanisms for many of these elements, however, this information is vital to achieve high recovery rates, and therefore an efficient and sustainable way of mining and processing.

Grants and funding

Sources and enrichment processes of metal(loid)s in submarine back-arc hydrothermal systems: A combined Se and multiple S isotope approach (PI, DFG IODP priority programme)

Immiscible sulphide liquids: Insights into chalcophile element fractionation processes in the oceanic crust (PI, DFG IODP priority programme)

Magmatic and hydrothermal prerequisites for porphyry-epithermal mineralisation in continental volcanic arcs, Thrace, NE Greece (PI, DFG DOME priority programme)

Tellurium in natural and synthetic pyrite: Ore-formation and economic implication (PI, DFG individual research grant)

An accessory mineral approach to understanding post-subduction magmatism and mineralisation (Co-PI, NERC UK)


  • Falkenberg, J., Keith, M., Hasse, K. M., Sporer, C., Bach, W., Klemd, R., Strauss, H., Storch, B., Peters, C., Rubin, K., Anderson, M., in review. Spatial variations in magmatic volatile influx and fluid boiling in submarine hydrothermal systems: Insights from sulfide chemistry at Niuatahi caldera, Tonga rear-arc. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.
  • Klose, L., Keith, M., Hafermaas, D., Kleint, C., Bach, W., Diehl, A., Wilckens, F., Peters, C., Strauss, H., Klemd, R., van Geldern, R., Haase, K. M., Koschinsky, A., accepted. Trace element and isotope systematics in vent fluids and sulphides from Maka volcano, North Eastern Lau Spreading Centre: Insights into three-component fluid mixing. Frontiers in Earth Science
  • Voudouris, P., Repstock, A., Spry, P. G., Frenzel, M., Mavrogonatos, C., Keith, M., Tarantola, A., Melfos, V., Tombros, S., Zhai, D., Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Schaarschmidt, A., Rieck, B., Kollitsch, U., Falkenberg, J., in press. Physicochemical constraints on indium-, tin-, germanium-, gallium-, gold- and tellurium-bearing mineralizations in the Pefka and St Philippos polymetallic vein- and breccia deposits: new insights into the critical element potential of Greece. Ore Geology Reviews.
  • Schaarschmidt, A., Haase, K. M., Klemd, R., Keith, M., Voudouris, P. C., Alfieris, D., Strauss, H., Wiedenbeck, M., 2021. Boiling effects on trace element and sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides in shallow-marine hydrothermal systems: Evidence from Milos Island, Greece. Chemical Geology, 583, 120457.
  • Börner, F., Keith, M., Smith, D. J., Barry, T. L., Neumann, T., 2021. Fingerprinting fluid evolution by trace elements in epithermal pyrite, Vatukoula deposit, Fiji. Ore Geology Reviews, 137, 104314.
  • Falkenberg, J., Keith, M., Haase, K. M., Bach, W., Klemd, R., Strauss, H., Yeo, I. A., Rubin, K. H., Anderson, M. O., 2021. Effect of fluid boiling on volatile element and Au enrichment in submarine hydrothermal sulphides, Niua South, Tonga arc. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 307, 105-132.
  • Keith, M.,Haase, K. M., Häckel, F., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Klemd, R., Hannington, M., Strauss, H., McConachy, T., Anderson, M., 2021. Trace element fractionation and precipitation in submarine back-arc hydrothermal systems, Nifonea caldera, New Hebrides subduction zone. Ore Geology Reviews, 135, 104211.
  • Nestmeyer, M., Keith, M.,Haase, K. M., Klemd, R., Voudouris, P., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Strauss, H., Kati, M., Magganas, A., 2021. Trace element signatures in pyrite and marcasite from shallow marine island arc-related hydrothermal vents, Calypso Vents, New Zealand, and Paleochori Bay, Greece. Frontiers in Earth Science, 9, 641654.
  • Voudouris, P., Kati, M., Magganas, A., Keith, M., Valsami-Jones, E., Haase, K., Klemd, R., Baltazis, E., 2021. Arsenian pyrite and cinnabar from active submarine nearshore vents, Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece. Minerals, 11, 14, 1-25.
  • Keith, M., Smith, D. J., Doyle, K., Holwell, D. A., Jenkin, G. R. T., Barry, T. L., Becker, J., Rampe, J., 2020. Pyrite chemistry: A new window into Au and Te ore-forming processes in alkaline epithermal districts, Cripple Creek, Colorado. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 274, 172-191.
  • Martin, A. J., Keith, M., Parvaz, D. B., McDonald, I., Boyce, A. J., McFall, K. A., Jenkin, G. R. T., Strauss, H., MacLeado, C. J., 2020. Effects of magmatic volatile influx in mafic VMS hydrothermal systems: Evidence from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Chemical Geology, 531, 119325.
  • Mavrogonatos, C., Voudouris, P., Berndt, J., Klemme, S., Zaccarini, F., Spry, P. G., Melfos, V., Tarantola, A., Keith, M., Klemd, R., Haase, K., 2019. Trace elements in magnetite from the Pagoni Rachi porphyry prospect, NE Greece. Implications for ore genesis and exploration: Minerals, 9 (12), 1-21.
  • Martin, A. J., Keith, M., McDonald, I., Haase, K. M., McFall, K. A., Klemd, R., MacLeod, C. J., 2019. Trace element systematics and ore-forming processes in mafic VMS deposits: Evidence from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Ore Geology Reviews, 106, 205-225.
  • Holwell, D. A., Fiorentini, M., McDonald, I., Lu, Y., Giuliani, A., Smith, D. J., Keith, M., Locmelis, M., 2019. A metasomatized lithospheric mantle control on the metallogenic signature of post-subduction magmatism. Nature Communications, 10, 1-10.
  • Keith, M., Haase, K. M., Klemd, R., Smith, D. J., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Bach, W., 2018. Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 173: 40, 1-16.
  • Keith, M., Smith, D. J., Jenkin, G. R. T., Holwell, D. A., Dye, M. D., 2018. A review of Te and Se systematics in hydrothermal pyrite from precious metal deposits: insights into ore-forming processes. Ore Geology Reviews, 96, 269-282.
  • Smith, D. J., Naden, J., Jenkin, G. R. T., Keith M., 2017. Hydrothermal alteration and fluid pH in alkaline-hosted epithermal systems. Ore Geology  Reviews, 89, 772-779.
  • Keith, M., Haase, K. M., Klemd, R., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Franke, H., 2017. Systematic variations in magmatic sulphide chemistry from mid-ocean ridges, back-arc basins and island arcs. Chemical Geology, 451, 67-77.
  • Keith, M., Haase, K. M., Klemd, R., Krumm, S., Strauss, H., 2016. Systematic variations of trace element and sulfur isotope compositions in pyrite with stratigraphic depth in the Skouriotissa volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Chemical Geology, 423, 7-18.
  • Keith, M., Häckel, F., Haase, K. M., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Klemd, R., 2016. Trace element systematics of pyrite from submarine hydrothermal vents. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 728-745.
  • Regelous, M., Haase, K. M., Freund, S., Keith M., Weinzierl, C. G., Beier, C., Brandl, P. A., Endres, T., Schmidt, H., 2014. Formation of the Troodos Ophiolite at a triple junction: Evidence from trace elements in volcanic glass. Chemical Geology, 386, 66-79.
  • Keith, M., Haase, K. M., Schwarz-Schampera, U., Klemd, R., Petersen, S., Bach, W., 2014. Effects of temperature, sulfur, and oxygen fugacity on the composition of sphalerite from submarine hydrothermal vents. Geology, 42, 699-702.
  • Freund, S., Haase, K. M., Keith, M., Beier, C., Garbe-Schönberg, D., 2014. Constraints on the formation of geochemically variable plagiogranite intrusions in the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 167, 1-22.